Short Course Description
Introduction to pesticides formulation-crop protection and pesticides; formulation types; codes; Soft matter; dispersion and suspension; colloids;
Surface forces and colloidal stability-stability of colloids in colloidal solution; Forces act between colloids: hydrophobic, VdW, double layer, steric, depletion, DLVO, Critical Coagulation Concentration, Zeta potential; hard and soft water; Agglomerates and aggregates, Flocculation, Coagulation.
Rheology-Viscosity; Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids, shear rate and strain, shear thinning and thickening, thixotropic liquids, Viscoelasticity, Presence of colloids-rheology of suspensions; Rheological measurements; Rheology of Hard sphere suspensions and Flocculated Suspensions; Peclet number; Viscosity of emulsions; Couette Rheometers; Thickeners: Bentonite, Organo-Clays (Bentones), Fumed silica (e.g. Aerosil), Gel formation using polymers e.g. Xanthan gum.
Surfactants-types; CMC; Kraft temp; cloud point; aggregation and micelles; anionic surfactants; non ionic surfactants; special surfactants; ethoxylated surfactants; cationic and zwiterionic surfactants; Silicone (Siloxane) Surfactants; HLB, adsorption; wetting agents, dispersing agents;
Polymers-types; polymer solution; surfactant-polymer interaction; EO-PO block co-polymers; polymeric surfactants; homopolymers; adsorption; Pluronicsdispersant; polymer aggregation and micelles; polymer brushes; Alexander-De Gennesinteraction; polyelectrolytes;
Surface tension, Contact angle and Solubilization-Surface energy and Interfacial Tensions; contact angle: static, dynamic, hysteresis, Wenzle and Cassie states; Young?Laplace equation; Kelvin equation; Ostwald ripening; solubilization in surfactants system; solubilization in polymeric micelles; hydrotropes; Hofmeister series; Hansen solubility sphere; solubility
Foams and antifoams-foams; breakdown and stabilization; antifoams VS. defoamers; types of antifoams; entry barrier; bridging?dewetting; insolubilized oils; oil?solid antifoam;
Emulsions-emulsification; Spontaneous emulsification; EW VS. EC; emulsion type (o/w or w/o); emulsion and microemulsion: packing parameter and HLB; Bancroft?s Rule; Marangoni Effect; Phase-Inversion Temperature; stability; effect of temp and salt; aging-flocculation, coalescence, creaming, sedimentation, Ostwald ripening; making emulsion using HLB; Microemulsions; Gibbs triangle phase diagram; Winsor types; double emulsions
Suspension Concentrates-milling; wetting agents; Rehbinder effect; crystal growth, stability and sedimentation, agitation.
Microencapsulation-Core-shell microcapsules; interfacial polymerization; Pennwalt process; Stauffer process; Release; Reaction rate; Isocyanate; Amines; Functionality and Equivalent Weight; Capsule thickness
Particle size-laser diffraction; Mie theory and Fraunhofer approximation; light scattering; size distribution;
plant physiology, transport and adjuvancy-Plant structure; Leaf structure; movement of water; movement of water through roots; Xylem transport; Phloem; Pressure-flow hypothesis; formulation efficacy; Rainfastness; Adjuvants; Humectants; Oils; Systemic pesticides